Web browsing first began as a system lacking in privacy that allowed users to view simple content in text mode. Since then, the service has evolved in both functionality–allowing you to view complex designs–and in its access methods–said web content can be downloaded encrypted.
Business, Schools, Government, and almost every other form of organization, cannot work without access to the Internet. But while the Internet has accelerated productivity it has brought with it many dangers and distractions. These Internet threats and danger can be managed efficiently by using Domain Name Systems (DNS) technologies.
A few months ago (January 2018), the media reported breaking news of alleged security failures for Intel and ARM processors. In order to understand these “weaknesses”, and before briefly describing the nature of these “security holes”, we need to list some of the common characteristics shared by modern processors.
The Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities were discovered last year, but only disclosed recently to the public. Both vulnerabilities are of the same family. They fundamentally affect certain CPU designs with around 20-years’ worth of processors and certain upcoming designs cannot be classified totally secure.
The first and so far the only time I was personally involved, (or to be more precise my son who at that time was eleven years old), in a cyber-attack by ransomware was in 2012. The computer of my son was apparently blocked by the Federal Criminal Police Office due to some illegal actions, such as sending spam mails and even worse. At least that’s what appeared on the screen in poor German. Strangely enough a fee of 100 Euros would unblock the computer. Well, I wondered how the 100 Euros would affect the illegal activities, my eleven year old boy had committed but you never know. Even though it was obvious that we didn’t get into trouble with the public authorities, my son was not amused by the fact that his computer was out of order. In fact, he must have felt exactly how the latest cyber attack has been dubbed: WannaCry.
In February this year, a team of researchers both from Google and CWI Institute in Amsterdam announced that they were able to generate two PDFs documents with different content that would hash into the same SHA-1 digest. This may lead to a big problem in security that I will try to explain to you but first let’s put ourselves in context.