As Advanced LTE becomes more of a day to day reality, industry is quickly moving towards the next mobile generation, 5G technology, which will bring important improvements in terms reduced latency, increased reliability and higher throughput.
It is, basically, a number of improvements that enhance the LTE (Long Term Evolution) standard stemming from the 3GPP Release 9 norm.
The main goal of the LTE Advanced standard is to improve LTE and broaden its capacity. That is, to guarantee a higher number of simultaneous users benefit from a better service.
The following is needed to achieve this goal:
- Better spectral efficiency, of up to 30bps/HZ.
- Variable bandwidth, capable of ranging from 20MHz to 100MHz by adding up to 5 20MHz carriers.
- Better use of antennas with 8×8 MIMO technology for downstream operations and 4×4 MIMO for upstream ones.
This means peak upload speeds of 1.5Gbps and download speeds of 3Gbps can be achieved.
Other standard improvements result from an advanced network topology, which supports both macro cells and a mixture of low-power nodes (femtocells, picocells and Relay Nodes). This gives users a far better service thanks to mixed network topologies, capable of combining big and small cells and of providing service to a larger number of simultaneously active users.
The standard’s other main goal is to enhance the service provided to users who are at the edge of a cell. This is achieved by providing simultaneous communication from the cell node the user is connected to and from the node belonging to the neighboring cell. The main improvement linked to this was added to 3GPP Release 11 and is known as CoMP (Coordinated Multipoint Operation). It allows the user to communicate, in a coordinated fashion, with two base stations and achieve a spectral efficiency of 2.4bps/Hz/cell with a 2X2 MIMO configuration.
Given the content we find in today’s mobile applications, the upstream and downstream speeds may seem somewhat excessive. The goal, however, is not to give maximum speed to a single user, but to increase the speed for all and provide the best possible service to a growing number of users operating in each cell.
LTE advanced has succeeded in introducing mobile communication (for service provision) in many new sectors where it was previously unthinkable, whilst doing so in an effective and efficient manner. The mobility market (trains and automation) is an eloquent example.
In Teldat, we work using LTE Advanced technology and we cover every available band worldwide (both for LTE-FDD and LTE-TDD networks). Moreover, our devices are LTE Cat 6. This guarantees LTE Advanced operation, and allows two carriers to be added in two different bands (for a 40 MHz aggregated bandwidth) to double the LTE Release 9 bandwidth. We also use 2×2 and 4×2 MIMO technology, which improves performance in every environment and is compatible with LTE Release 11.
The mobile market continues to have spectacular growth figures and it is forecasted that upward trend continues throughout the next few years. Not only on a head count where we can safely say that over half of the world’s population has a mobile subscription, but also on the amount of SIM connections used for machine-to-machine (M2M), especially with the huge spread of IoT to date and even more so for the future.
It is within this context that new band plans are so important. However it is true to say that certain band plans hold very high expectations. This is the case of APT700 (700 MHz) band 28. APT700 was identified as a huge potential for the mobile market with the shift of television broadcasting from analogue to digital, leaving the 700 MHz frequency bands free for spectrum auctions. It was Australia and New Zealand who took the leading role in converting 700 MHz into bands for the cellular market. However, since then, many more countries have joined in and started to use this frequency band.
Currently, there are 12 operators who have launched APT700 band 28. Apart from Australia and New Zealand, other countries with band 28 operators are Taiwan and Papua New Guinea in the Asia Pacific region, as well as Panama in LATAM. Moreover, it is clear that Panama will not be the only LATAM country to take on 700MHz band 28 for the mobile market. There are also another 13 countries in LATAM who are committed to taking on 700MHz band 28 for LTE deployments. Within those, one of the countries is Mexico which has a huge potential with over 100 million inhabitants. Overall there are 43 countries with 700MHz currently launched or planned for LTE deployments, including Eurpoean countries such as Finland, France, Germany, Sweden, UK and United Arab Emirates in the Middle East.
But why the APT700 band 28 plan?
It has various clear advantages due to the low spectrum issues, which are briefly summarized below:
1. Wide area coverage: Band 28 has an excellent wide area coverage and wider bandwidth availability, data capacity and higher performance. All these offer clear advantages for regional and rural environments.
2. Reduced capital expenditure: Having an excellent wide area coverage, means that operators can reduce their capital expenditure, as they need less deployment of base stations per square kilometer of territory to spread the cellular network in low density areas.
3. In-building coverage: Unlike other frequency bands, APT700 band 28 is able to transmit much easier than other LTE frequency bands, through building walls and other obstacles.
4. Economies of Scale on devices: To date many countries are committed to using APT700 band 28 and it is foreseen that more are going to join. This will increase the total amount of potential users, increase the productivity of devices, and hence bring economies of scale for devices.
5. Roaming: Again the large number of countries gives another advantage in that it simplifies roaming around the world for LTE users.
6. Machine-2-Machine applications: With 700 MHz band 28, whether devices are placed indoors or outdoors, the network can work extremely well. This makes it totally viable for machine-2-machine set-ups in general, as well as for the concept of Smart City solutions.
Many of these advantages could be clearly expected from a frequency band that had been used for television broadcasting for many, many years. Seeing these advantages, Teldat was quick to investigate the 700MHz band 28 plan and we have been one of the first router manufacturers to work perfectly with band 28 in many of our transport and compact routers.
Delivery Fleets are at the cutting edge of the “internet of things” – just in time delivery, fast response times for service requests, satisfied customers, improving up-time for customer operations, minimizing rolling inventories, productive fleet maintenance, reducing fuel costs … advanced networking and LTE connectivity now provide dozens of ways to be more efficient, reduce costs, and enhance customer satisfaction, resulting in increased profitability.
We were present, as a sponsor, at the European Utility Telecom Conference (EUTC) in Dublin. There we had the opportunity to further experience the most commonly used Smart Grid technologies and how these optimized both deployment and maintenance costs, by adapting to certain topologies.
Will a niche solution by manufacturers like Apple, using ALL-IP, be made available?
Since the beginning of the 1990s, building automation systems in large industrial and office buildings have been an integral part of the construction industry. Intelligent and cost-intensive field bus systems from different manufacturers, provide via various sensors and actuators, a wide range of information, as well as control of numerous parameters such as individual room temperatures, light and control systems.
Nevertheless, the tasks of building automation systems go far beyond providing information related to the technical aspects of measurement and steering building equipment.
SME and Private Homes
Most users in SME’s and private homes do not benefit from this technology because of the high acquisition costs and the hardly measurable advantages in time and money that such systems give.
Many stand-alone solutions have been developed: Individual systems for heating control, air conditioning, lighting, electrical blinds for the windows and beamers installed on the ceiling, are only to mention a few examples. However, each system had to be independently programmed and controlled.
For quite some time numerous radio buses have been established besides field bus systems. The advantage of radio buses compared to wired buses are the simple retrofitting capacity and the independence of any electrical line. Light switches for instance can also be subsequently placed anywhere. Moreover, the price of a radio systems is often considerably lower than of conventional bus systems. The disadvantage of such systems was that they were only partially or not at all compatible.
A presumed susceptibility to faults has been avoided by choosing a certain frequency. Gateways connect the radio buses to the field bus system and even more importantly to the LAN.
Until recently all manufacturers tried to defend their systems. Meanwhile, several manufacturers have formed a strategic alliance in order to enable a better interoperability.
Currently, manufacturers like Deutsche Telekom, Gigaset, Philips and now also Apple have positioned themselves in the market.
HomeKit is the new iOS interface by Apple for a networked home or office as a comprehensive system. Developers can use libraries for instance in order to integrate the voice recognition Siri for their applications without having to write a single line of code.
For app developers and automation products HomeKit is the most important interface but end users cannot yet apply it. A central place for users to control their HomeKit products will be launched by Apple in the future. If everything works out the way Apple announces, we will only need one single app and Siri in order to control our lights, doors, heating and sockets. Not like at present, where we need to virtually have individual apps for every lamp.
When the HomeKit compatible product is connected to the iOS device you can control it or turn it on and off by Siri voice commands depending on the kind of product. Here are some examples:
- “Turn the light on.” or “Turn the light off.”
- “Dim the light.” or “Dim the light to 50 %.”
- “Set the temperature to 20°C.”
With the following commands you can make settings for rooms or environments:
- “Turn on all lamps in the training facility.”
- “Turn off the Support light.”
- “Dim the light in the kitchen.”
- “Dim the light in the demo room to 50 %.”
- “Set the thermostat in the first floor to 21°C.
- “Turn on the printer in the office.”
- “Siri, prepare everything for a party.”
- “Prepare the ambience for dinner.”
- “Activate the night time mode.”
It has been presumed for a long time that a future version of the Apple TV box could take a decisive role as the control center for home automation. Nevertheless, if the platform was only controlled by a mobile device it would not be “smart” anymore when the owner leaves the house with his device.
The secure coupling of a smart terminal device via VPN to the home LAN fills this gap. Not only all devices at home or in the company can be controlled from all over the world, but also all services of the home telecommunication center can be used. When the cleaning lady rings the bell you can see her and remotely open the door.
Siri: “Open the staff entrance door.”
Teldat is aware of this challenge. We support our customers within the scope of our router portfolio, with all ALL-IP products including VPN and VoVPN solutions as well as secure voice connections via SIPS and SRTP in the area of media gateways and PBXs. Together with other manufacturers, telecommunication companies and suppliers we develop these solutions and always implement the latest version in order to offer our customers the highest performance with the best possible security.